Brass Rubbing Facsimilies
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Celtic Brasses
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Geuffos farm is now the home of WHITE WINDS, the worlds leading supplier of Brass Rubbing Facsimiles, Brass Rubbing Paper and Brass rubbing Wax.

In the medieval and early modern periods in particular, Monumental Brasses were popular forms of monuments or memorials used to cover the tombs of those buried inside churches. A Monumental Brass, is engraved on sheets of metal inlaid in matrices cut into the stone; they have been made in England from the thirteenth century to the present day. Monumental Brasses were designed in a range of styles reflecting the general trends in art of their period. They can be studied from a variety of perspectives, including the artistic context and iconography of the monuments and the life, dress styles, improvements in armour, self-image and religious beliefs of those commemorated.

Monumental Brasses are an interesting and absorbing study in their own right, but they also provide rich visual imagery for those interested in a range of other subjects. It was to capture this visual imagery that the idea of Brass Rubbing was first hit upon.

Monumental Brasses act as a picture book illustrating key figures in the British history. Many monuments show participants in key events, including the 100 Years War with France, the Wars of the Roses and the Civil War. There are brasses to medieval royalty, such as that at Westminster Abbey to Eleanor de Bohun, daughter-in-law of Edward III and aunt of Richard II. Others commemorate descendants of key figures in our cultural heritage, such as the son and daughter-in-law of the poet, Geoffrey Chaucer, at Ewelme, Oxfordshire.

BRASS RUBBING became popular in the middle of the last century. The problem was that so many people became interested in Brass Rubbing that there was concern about damage to the original brasses. At this point, a group of young "modern Materials" students learned the art of making perfect mouldings from brasses so that they could safely be rubbed without the risk of damaging the original church brasses. These guys also created perfect formulas for Brass Rubbing Paper and Brass Rubbing Wax, which were ideally suited to the process of brass rubbing. All of the products created by this group of hippies are all now sold by White Winds.

What does a Brass Rubbing look like?

Well, if you get to be REALLY proficient at it (as the ladies at the now defunct Westminster Brass Rubbing centre were), then you could produce something like this. A piece like this one would have taken many hours of patient work, and a very thorough knowledge of the pieces. For most of us though, producing a good rubbing in a single colour is reasonably simple if you take your time and work with care.

How do I do a brass rubbing?

1) Choose a brass : There are many wonderful brasses to be found in Churches around Britain, but White Winds can also supply the largest range of FACSIMILE BRASSES anywhere in the world.

2) Seek permission to do the rubbing. If your chosen brass is in a church, or belongs to someone else, then please seek permission from the owner first. (Book an appointment to avoid clashing with church services and other church activities. Most churches allow rubbing, normally on payment of a fee or a donation to the church fabric fund. Some churches provide resin facsimiles of brasses for rubbing; where available these should always be used - your rubbing will be just as good as one taken from the original brass).

3) Assemble your brass rubbing kit of paper, wax, masking tape, a good eraser and scissors. If you are doing your rubbing in a church, then you will also need a soft brush, a dustpan and a duster. Remove your shoes and any other hard object that might scratch the brass. (The paper, wax, masking tape and eraser can all be purchased from White Winds. Please click on the above link).

4) Clean the brass Kneel, by the side of the brass not on it, and carefully brush any grit or other debris from the brass and the surrounding area. If the brass is not cleaned properly, grit may damage the brass and tear the paper, spoiling your brass rubbing.

5) Dust the brass with your duster to remove any remaining dust or grit. 

6) Cut a length of Brass Rubbing paper, leaving a reasonable margin at top and bottom.

A word about your choice of Brass Rubbing paper. Black paper is rather more forgiving of errors than white paper. With even the best erasers, a smudge will probably show up on White paper, which would have been 'hidden' by black paper. Unless you are very proficient, we suggest always using black paper. (Either way, White Winds sells a special eraser that works very well with Brass Rubbing wax). While you can use ordinary paper, a special paper was developed specifically for the purpose of brass rubbing, and we suggest that you use this as it is finer and stronger, allowing better definition without the risk of tearing. We have a very limited supply of rolls of white Brass Rubbing paper, and once it is gone, there will never be any more. (Our manufacturer makes five tons at a time, and while we the sale of black paper justifies this, the sale of white does not, so we will not be making any more white paper).

7) Stick the paper to the stone. The paper must be taughtly fixed to the stone or backing board, with no wrinkles. Secure the paper at the top and roll it down. Stick it on one side, with strips of masking tape every 6-8 inches, positioned at a downward angle. Make sure the paper is stretched tightly, them stick the other side and bottom of the paper. (White Winds sells a special masking tape that is ideally suited to this purpose)

8) Stretch the paper If the area surrounding the brass is damp, the paper will stretch more than usual and could cause your rubbing to be blurred. To avoid this problem, fix the paper initially with fewer pieces of tape, then leave it for 20 minutes, stretch the paper tight and re-fix it with tape every 6-8 inches. 

9) Outline the composition with your fingers so the edges of the brass plates stand out and you avoid inadvertently rubbing over them. If rivets are protruding they may cause tears in your rubbing. (If there were rivets securing the original piece, then these are faithfully reproduced in White Winds Facsimile copies). In this case, make small holes around the rivet to enable the paper to lie flat on the brass. The holes can easily be repaired from the back when your brass rubbing is complete.

10) Rub with the Brass Rubbing Wax beginning at the top of the brass. Hold the Wax Stick fairly flat in one hand and with the other hand make an L shape by stretching out the thumb and laying the palm flat on the paper. By rubbing within the outstretched hand it is easier to control the length of the strokes. Try to rub in one direction only (preferably up and down, following the main lines of the engraving) and aim for an even finish.

A WORD ABOUT BRASS RUBBING WAX: The basis for our wax is 'Candelilla' which is made from a plant called the 'Slipper plant', which grows in Northern Mexico. this same wax is used in many cosmetics (in place of wax derived from whales). Our wax is non-toxic, (although we would not advocate eating it), and is therefore quite safe to use. Brass Rubbing Wax is much harder than waxes that you might be used to, (candle wax or wax crayons for example), and is therefore much better for rubbing over lines on the surface of the brass, without flowing into the hollow.

11) Avoid going over the edges by leaving them until you have rubbed the central adjoining part. By positioning a piece of cardboard by the edge of the brass you can avoid making unwanted marks. (We advocate making several 'trial run' rubbings of your chosen brass before embarking on your 'main effort'. That way, you can learn where all the 'pitfalls' of your chosen brass lie. It is very easy to make mistakes with handles and blades of swords for example, or following the line of  staff that is held away from the body, or the features of a foot-rest animal. Alternatively, if you have a digital camera and can photograph the details of the brass before you set your paper in place, then you can refer to these images if you are unsure.) (White Winds does not sell digital cameras! :-)

12) Work systematically, finishing each section in turn; the paper may stretch under the pressure of rubbing so that if you return to a section to touch it up, blurring may occur. If the engraved lines are deep, rub hard to get a good solid colour finish, but if the brass is worn a better reproduction is achieved by rubbing more gently and aiming for a grey finish.

13) Finish the Brass Rubbing by checking carefully that you have rubbed all parts of the composition and have rubbed right to the edges of the plates. 

14) Remove the paper from the slab Ease the tape from the outside, taking care not to tear the paper. If any of the brass has been obscured by the tape. Take off the piece of tape and rub where it has been.

15) Take the tape off the paper, by easing up the inner edge and peeling away, TOWARDS the edge, (not FROM the edge), to avoid tearing the paper. 

16) Polish your Brass Rubbing by gently buffing with a soft duster to remove any lose flakes of wax.


In addition to the Brass Rubbing materials, White Winds also offers a wide range of quality Gift items. We hope that everyone will be able to find that special little treat for themselves, and a Gift for someone else, whether it be a Birthday, a Special Occasion or Christmas gift, somewhere in our range. 


We have a wonderful range of pieces created by the renowned British Artist, David Lawrence, including his magnificent Green Man wall plaquesCabinet pieces and Cats Wall Plaques.  Please follow this link to see the full range of David Lawrence products.

David's fine sculptures are reproduced for us in bonded resin, such that the pieces have the exact look and feel of the original Cotswold Stone, Terracotta, Marble or Bronze in which the pieces are finished. This makes them eminently suitable for display either inside or outside, since they will suffer no ill effects from the ravages of the elements.


In addition, we have a range of Celtic Cross wall plaques, finished in Brass on a wooden background.

Celtic art is deeply ingrained in the culture of the British isles. These brasses are copies of some of the most famous of those pieces. Please click on the image to see the full range.


And finally, if you are looking for a really special gift; something that will be appreciated by anybody and everybody, have a look at our Sealing Wax sets!  

In these days of text messages and emails, who could fail to be delighted with this beautiful sealing wax set in its black velveteen case. The seal itself is in the form of a lion rampant, holding a shield, with the seal letter underneath him. We can supply wax in a variety of colours, and the sets are available in most commonly used initials. Please click on the image to see the Sealing wax sets.


No one seems too sure how it came about, but White Winds offers a range of Essential oils (in 5cl, 10cl and 50cl sizes), Carrier oils (in 100cl, 250cl and 500cl sizes) and hand thrown pottery oil burners.

We have not listed the full range of oils on the internet, because of the number of permutations of oils and sizes, but, should you be interested in seeing a price list, please contact us by phone, email, fax or snail mail and we will be delighted to send you the full price list. To see our range of oil burners, please click on the image.  


Our Herbal Heat Pad is the perfect way of soothing away all those day-to-day aches and pains that are the seemingly inevitable side effect of life in the 21st century. Place it in a Microwave oven for two minutes, then lay it on the area that ails you and relax as it's stored heat, and  wonderful herbal aroma wash through you. We know it works, because we use them ourselves! Every day! Click on the image to see the Herbal Heat pad.

Whatever it is that you are looking for, please follow the link to White Winds! many thanks for visiting our "home" site. We hope you find what you are looking for. HAPPY SHOPPING!

We do hope White Winds can provide what you are looking for!